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Human Development Index - Rank 134

What is the Human Development Index (HDI)?

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of human development. It measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life (health), access to knowledge (education) and a decent standard of living (income). Data availability determines HDI country coverage. To enable cross-country comparisons, the HDI is, to the extent possible, calculated based on data from leading international data agencies and other credible data sources available at the time of writing.

What does the HDI tell us?

The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with such different human development outcomes. For example, the Bahamas and New Zealand have similar levels of income per person, but life expectancy and expected years of schooling differ greatly between the two countries, resulting in New Zealand having a much higher HDI value than the Bahamas. These striking contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities.

Each year since 1990 the Human Development Report has published the Human Development Index (HDI) which was introduced as an alternative to conventional measures of national development, such as level of income and the rate of economic growth. The HDI represents a push for a broader definition of well-being and provides a composite measure of three basic dimensions of human development: health, education and income. India's HDI is 0.547, which gives the country a rank of 134 out of 187 countries with comparable data.

The Human Development Index (HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.

The concept of human development is a holistic one putting people at the centre of all aspects of the development process.

Rapid economic growth of the past decade has ensured India a place among the top 10 movers on GDP growth, but the country ranks a low 134 among 187 countries on the 2019 Human Development Index.

China and Sri Lanka have been ranked much higher at 101 and 97 on the index published annually by the United Nations Development Programme.

And the reasons should be obvious. India compares very poorly with countries with high level of human development on all indicators such as life expectancy, education and per capita income. For instance, life expectancy at birth is 65.4 years in India.

Norway, Australia, Netherlands, United States, New Zealand, Canada, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan are the top 12 ranked countries.

Human Development Index - Rank 134
Year India Medium Human Development South Asia World
2019 0.547 0.630 0.548 0.682
2010 0.542 0.625 0.545 0.679
2009 0.535 0.618 0.538 0.676

Source: World Bank (2019). "World Development Indicators 2019." Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Accessed May 15, 2019.

Life expectancy at birth (years) 65.4.

In comparison, people living in countries such as Norway, Australia, New Zealand and many countries across Europe are expected to live beyond 80 years. The world average is 69.3 years. The Chinese are expected to live about 73.5 years.

Indicators Value
Expenditure on health, public (% of GDP) 1.1
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 66
Life expectancy at birth (years) 65.4
Health index (life expectancy) 0.717
Expenditure on health, public (% of GDP)

Public health expenditure consists of current and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Probability of dying between birth and exactly age 5, expressed per 1,000 live births.

Life expectancy at birth (years)

Number of years a newborn infant could expect to live if prevailing patterns of age-specific mortality rates at the time of birth stay the same throughout the infant’s life.

Health index (life expectancy)

Life expectancy at birth expressed as an index using a minimum value of 20 years and observed maximum value over 1980-2010.

Education index (expected and mean years of schooling) 0.450

The number of years a person has spent in school is a dismal 4.4 years for India as compared to global average of 7.4 and 4.6 for South Asia.

Indicators Value
Public expenditure on education (% of GDP) 3.1
Expected years of schooling (of children under 7) (years) 10.3
Adult literacy rate, both sexes (% aged 15 and above) 62.8
Mean years of schooling (of adults over 25) (years) 4.4
Education index (expected and mean years of schooling) 0.450
Combined gross enrolment in education (both sexes) (%) 62.6
Public expenditure on education (% of GDP)

Total public expenditure (current and capital) on education expressed as a percentage of GDP.

Expected years of schooling (of children under 7) (years)

Number of years of schooling that a child of school entrance age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates persist throughout the child’s life.

Adult literacy rate, both sexes (% aged 15 and above)

Percentage of the population ages 15 and older who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on their everyday life.

Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years)

Average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older, converted from education attainment levels using official durations of each level.

Education index (expected and mean years of schooling)

One of the three indices on which the Human Development Index is built. It is based on mean years of schooling (of adults) and expected years of schooling (of children).

Combined gross enrolment in education (both sexes) (%)

The number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of theoretical school age for the three levels.

GNI per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $) 3,468
Indicators Value
GDP per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $) 2,993
GNI per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $) 3,468
Income index (GNI per capita) 0.508
GDP per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $)

Sum of value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output, calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated capital assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Value added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. When expressed in US$ terms, it is converted using the average official exchange rate reported by the International Monetary Fund. An alternative conversion factor is applied if the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate effectively applied to transactions in foreign currencies and traded products. When expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) US$ terms, it is converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that the U.S. dollar has in the United States.

GNI per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $)

Aggregate income of an economy generated by its production and its ownership of factors of production, less the incomes paid for the use of factors of production owned by the rest of the world, converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, divided by midyear population.

Income index (GNI per capita)

GNI per capita (2005 PPP International $, using natural logarithm) expressed as an index using a minimum value of $100 and observed maximum value over 1980-2019.

Inequality-adjusted HDI 0.392
Indicators Value
Income Gini coefficient 36.8
Loss due to inequality in life expectancy (%) 27.1
Loss due to inequality in education (%) 40.6
Loss due to inequality in income (%) 14.7
Inequality-adjusted education index 0.267
Inequality-adjusted life expectancy index 0.522
Inequality-adjusted income index 0.433
Inequality-adjusted HDI 0.392
Income Gini coefficient

Measure of the deviation of the distribution of income (or consumption) among individuals or households within a country from a perfectly equal distribution. A value of 0 represents absolute equality, a value of 100 absolute inequality.

Loss due to inequality in life expectancy (%)

The loss in life expectancy due to inequality is the difference between two averages – the arithmetic mean which does not account for inequality and the geometric mean which does. The loss, expressed as a percentage, is the relative difference between the two.

Loss due to inequality in education (%)

The loss in mean years of schooling due to inequality is the difference between two averages – the arithmetic mean which does not account for inequality and the geometric mean which does. The loss, expressed as a percentage, is the relative difference between the two.

Loss due to inequality in income (%)

The loss in income due to inequality is the difference between two averages – the arithmetic mean which does not account for inequality and the geometric mean which does. The loss, expressed as a percentage, is the relative difference between the two.

Inequality-adjusted education index

The HDI education index adjusted for inequality in distribution of years of schooling based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.

Inequality-adjusted life expectancy index

The HDI life expectancy index adjusted for inequality in distribution of expected length of life based on data from life tables listed in Main data sources.

Inequality-adjusted income index

The HDI income index adjusted for inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys listed in Main data sources.

Inequality-adjusted HDI

Human Development Index (HDI) value adjusted for inequalities in the three basic dimensions of human development. See Technical note 2 for details on how the IHDI is calculated.

Multidimensional Poverty Index (%) 0.283
Indicators Value
Multidimensional Poverty Index (%) 0.283
MPI: Intensity of deprivation 52.7
Headcount of MPI poor (% of population) 53.7
Population living below $1.25 PPP per day (%) 41.6
Multidimensional Poverty Index (%)

Composite measure of the percentage of deprivations that the average person would experience if the deprivations of poor households were shared equally across the population.

Calculated from various household surveys, including ICF Macro Demographic and Health Surveys, United Nations Children's Fund Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Organization World Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2010.

MPI: Intensity of deprivation

Average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.

Headcount of MPI poor (% of population)

Percentage of the population with a weighted deprivation score of at least 33 percent.

Population living below $1.25 PPP per day (%)

Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line $1.25 (in purchasing power parity terms) a day.

Gender Inequality Index 0.617
Indicators Value
Population with at least secondary education (Ratio of female to male rates) 0.528
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15-19) 86.3
Labour force participation rate (Ratio of female to male shares) 0.404
Gender Inequality Index 0.617
Shares in parliament, female-male ratio 0.119
Maternal mortality ratio (deaths of women per 100,000 live births) 230
Population with at least secondary education (Ratio of female to male rates)

Percentage of the population ages 25 and older that has attained a secondary or higher level of education.

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15-19)

Number of births to women ages 15 - 19 per 1,000 women ages 15 - 19.

Labour force participation rate (Ratio of female to male shares)

Ratio of female to male of the working-age population (ages 15–64) that actively engages in the labour market, by either working or actively looking for work.

Gender Inequality Index

A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market.

Shares in parliament, female-male ratio

Ratio of seats held by a respective gender in a lower or single house or an upper house or senate, where relevant.

Maternal mortality ratio (deaths of women per 100,000 live births)

Ratio of the number of maternal deaths to the number of live births in a given year, expressed per 100,000 live births.

Adjusted net savings (% of GNI) 24.1
Indicators Value
Endangered species (% of all species) 13
Ecological footprint of consumption (global hectares per capita) 0.9
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI) 24.1
Greenhouse gases per capita (tonnes of CO2 equivalent) 0.7
Fresh water withdrawals (% of actual total renewable water resources) 40.1
Natural resource depletion (% of GNI) 4.2
Carbon dioxide per capita emission (growth 1970-2008) (%) 3.8
Forest area (thousand ha) 68,144
Change in forest area (%) 6.6
Impact of natural disasters: number of deaths (average per year per million people) 2
Impact of natural disasters: population affected (average per year per million people) 41,245
Environmental Performance Index 48.3
Forest area (% of total land area) 22.9
Carbon Dioxide Emissions per capita (tonnes) 1.5
Endangered species (% of all species)

Percentage of animal species (including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates) classified as either critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

Ecological footprint of consumption (global hectares per capita)

Amount of biologically productive land and sea area that a country requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates.

Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)

Rate of savings in an economy that takes into account investments in human capital, depletion of natural resources and damage caused by pollution (including particulate emissions), expressed as a percentage of gross national income (GNI). A negative value implies an unsustainable path.

Greenhouse gases per capita (tonnes of CO2 equivalent)

Emissions from methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases including hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride, divided by midyear population. Carbon dioxide emissions are not included.

Fresh water withdrawals (% of actual total renewable water resources)

Total fresh water withdrawn in a given year, expressed as a percentage of total renewable water resources.

Carbon dioxide per capita emission (growth 1970-2008) (%)

Average annual growth in total CO2 emission from 1970-2008.

Forest area (thousand ha)

Forest area is the land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. Areas under reforestation that have not yet reached but are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 percent and a tree height of 5 m are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas, resulting from human intervention or natural causes, which are expected to regenerate. Excludes: tree stands in agricultural production systems, for example in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems. The term also excludes trees in urban parks and gardens.

Change in forest area (%)

Percentage change in area under forest cover.

Impact of natural disasters: number of deaths (average per year per million people)

People confirmed as dead, or missing and presumed dead, as a result of natural disasters, which include drought, extreme temperature, flood, mass movement, wet storm and wildfire.

Impact of natural disasters: population affected (average per year per million people)

People requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency as a result of a natural disaster (as defined above), including displaced, evacuated, homeless and injured people.

Environmental Performance Index

Index comprising 25 performance indicators across 10 policy categories covering both environmental public health and ecosystem vitality.

Forest area (% of total land area)

Percentage of total land area spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds, unless under agricultural or urban land use.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions per capita (tonnes)

Human-originated carbon dioxide emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, gas flaring and the production of cement, divided by midyear population.

Population, total both sexes (thousands) 1241492.0
Indicators Value
Population, total both sexes (thousands) 1,241,492.0
Population, urban (% of population) 30.3
Population, female (thousands) 600,477.34
Population, male (thousands) 641,014.62
Population, total both sexes (thousands)

The population of as of 1 July 2019.

Population, urban (% of population)

The population living in areas classified as urban according to the criteria used by each area or country as of 1 July 2019.

Population, female (thousands)

The female population in India as of 1 July 2019.

Population, male (thousands)

The male population in India as of 1 July 2019.

The 2019 Legatum Prosperity Index
India Rank 91

The Legatum Institute (LI) is an independent non-partisan public policy group based in London. LI's research, publications, and programmes advance ideas and policies in support of free and prosperous societies around the world. The Legatum Institute publishes the annual Legatum Prosperity Index™, the world's only global assessment of wealth and well-being.

What is prosperity, and how is it achieved?

The Legatum Prosperity Index seeks to answer these two fundamental questions. Most people would intuitively agree that “prosperity” is not just about money but also about quality of life. The Index defines prosperity as both wealth and wellbeing, and finds that the most prosperous nations in the world are not necessarily those that have only a high GDP, but are those that also have happy, healthy, and free citizens.

How is Prosperity Index created

The Legatum Prosperity Index™ assesses 110 countries, accounting for over 90 percent of the world’s population, and is based on 89 different variables, each of which has a demonstrated effect on economic growth or on personal wellbeing.

The Index consists of eight sub-indexes, each of which represents a fundamental aspect of prosperity:

  1. Economy - Stable and growing economies increase per capita income and promote the overall wellbeing of its citizens.
  2. Entrepreneurship & Opportunity (E&O) - A strong entrepreneurial climate in which citizens can pursue new ideas and opportunities for improving their lives leads to higher levels of income and wellbeing.
  3. Governance - Well-governed societies enjoy national economic growth and citizen wellbeing.
  4. Education - Education is a building block for prosperous societies.
  5. Health - A strong healthcare infrastructure in which citizens are able to enjoy good physical and mental health leads to higher levels of income and wellbeing.
  6. Safety & Security - Societies plagued by threats to national security and personal safety cannot foster growth in average levels of income or wellbeing.
  7. Personal Freedom - When citizens enjoy their rights to expression, belief, organisation, and personal autonomy in a society welcoming of diversity, their country enjoys higher levels of income and social wellbeing.
  8. Social Capital - Social networks and the cohesion that a society experiences when people trust one another have a direct effect on the prosperity of a country.
India Rank 91
  • India has slipped 3 places to the 91st spot from 88th in 2010.
  • China is ranked 52nd in the list of 110 countries, which is topped by Norway. Other countries in the top five are Denmark (2), Australia (3), NewZeland (4) and Sweden(5).
  • India has ranked low on education ground (88th in the Index), Governance (41st) health (95th), Safety & Security (97th), Personal Freedom (73rd), entrepreneurship and opportunity (90th), and social Capital (104th).
Fast Facts
  • Average Life Satisfaction -5 / 10 (2010 Est.)
  • Literacy Rate -63% (2006)
  • Population mn. -1,233 million (2019 Est.)
  • Health Adjusted Life Expectancy -56 years (2007)
  • GDP per capita (PPP) -$3,608 (2019 Est.)
  • Business Start-up Costs (% of Gross National Income) -56.5% (2019)
  • GDP (PPP) bn. -$4,447.8 (2019 Est.)
  • 84.6% of people believe society is meritocratic -(2010)
  • Political System -Federal Republic (2019)
  • 59.7% of people feel personal safety -(2010)
  • Freedom House Rating -Free (2019)
  • 20.6% of people find others trustworthy -(2010)

Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

Economy - Ranked 53rd
Despite current low standards of living, the population is optimistic about their economic future

India has rampant inflation, with a rate close to 11%, although the gross domestic savings rate is better at 32% of GDP. The unemployment rate is low at just over 4%, placing India in the top 30 countries on this variable. However, only 48% of people report having paid or unpaid work, which is well below the global average.

With regards to citizens’ ability to access affordable food and shelter, and the percentage of Indians content with their standards of living, India is close to international averages, ranking 65th and 63rd , respectively. However, a high rate of growth in GDP per capita, averaging 7% annually between 2005 and 2009, contributes to public optimism about the economy: 37% of people have confidence in local job market opportunities, and the country places 33rd in the Index on the variable for citizens’ economic expectations.

Objective variables indicate future economic growth is likely to be robust. While the amount of physical capital available to workers is low, and high-tech exports only constitute 9% of total manufactured exports, India’s levels of foreign direct investment, as measured by both net inflows and volatility, are impressive, and it has the 12th largest domestic market in the world. Only 2% of all loans are currently non-performing, indicating a healthy banking sector.

Subjective assessments mirror this strong performance, with 82% of people expressing confidence in India’s financial institutions, placing the country 12th, on this variable.

Regional Ranking: Asia-Pacific
Rank Country
3 Australia
4 New Zealand
16 Singapore
19 Hong Kong
20 Taiwan
21 Japan
24 South Korea
43 Malaysia
45 Thailand
46 Kazakhstan
52 China
60 Mongolia
62 Vietnam
63 Sri Lanka
64 Uzbekistan
66 Philippines
70 Indonesia
91 India
93 Nepal
94 Cambodia
95 Bangladesh
107 Pakistan
Entrepreneurship & Opportunity - Ranked 90th
Indians are optimistic about business opportunities, despite poor entrepreneurial infrastructure and social inequality

There is a moderate level of innovative activity in India. The country invests 1% of its GDP in R&D, placing 43rd on the Index, and India places 30th with respect to royalty receipts.

Just under 4% of goods exports are from the ICT sector, placing India at 37th on this variable.

Indians are extremely pessimistic about the local entrepreneurial environment: only 48% of people believe their local area is a good place to look for a job, placing India amongst the lowest five countries in the Index. This negative subjective assessment appears apposite, given that business start-up costs are very high at 57% of GNI per capita.

In addition, India has a weak infrastructure for entrepreneurship: 45% of the population own a mobile telephone, internet bandwidth capacity is only moderate, and the availability of secure internet servers is low.

Inequality across different socio-economic groups is pervasive in India, placing the country in the bottom 20 for equality of development. However, 85% of people believe that hard work allows people to get ahead.

Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

Governance - Ranked 41st
India’s democratic structures are stable and well-regulated, helping to secure public approval

India is in many ways a successful democracy. The current regime has been in place for six decades, indicating a high level of stability. There are sufficient political constraints to ensure accountability, there is an above-average level of competition in the executive and legislative branches of government, and the executive is reasonably well-regulated. However, India places 59th with respect to the efficacy of its governance, indicating that its bureaucracy is somewhat inefficient and is, at times, unable to implement policy effectively. Yet the government remains popular: 72% of people surveyed in 2010 expressed their approval of the government, the 19th highest rate, internationally.

Furthermore, 52% approved of the country’s efforts to address poverty and 54% supported its efforts to preserve the environment, placing India 27th and 51st, respectively, on these variables. Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

However, India's score on the rule of law variable is unexceptional, as is the perception that corruption is widespread in government and business, which is slightly above the global average . Regulation of the business environment is also inadequate. Yet despite these factors, public confidence in state institutions is high: 95% of people have confidence in the military and 78% trust the judicial system, with India placing amongst the top 20 countries on both variables.

The Indian government places some restrictions on the political rights of citizens, and only 17% of people had voiced their opinion to a public official in the month prior to a 2010 survey, indicating a low level of public participation in the political system. Just over half of people surveyed believe that elections are conducted honestly.

Education - Ranked 88th
Low enrolment rates and large classes result in poor human capital

India has a poorly developed education system. Net primary enrolment is below average at 91%, while gross secondary and tertiary enrolment are also low at 60% and 14%, respectively. India places in the bottom half of the Index on all these variables. There is an under representation of girls in primary and secondary education, and class sizes are among the 15 largest in the world, with 40 pupils for every teacher at the primary level.

According to a 2010 survey, two-thirds of respondents were satisfied with their local educational facilities, and believed that children have sufficient opportunities to learn and grow, placing India 68th on both variables. India does not have a well-educated workforce: the country places 92nd for the average level of secondary education attained by workers, and 95th for the average level of tertiary education per worker.

Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

Health - Ranked 95th
India has extremely poor healthcare, failing to prevent systemic diseases or malnourishment

Five in 100 children die within the first year of life in India, and just over a fifth of people are malnourished, indicating poor public health, and ranking in the bottom 20 on both variables. Indians have a health-adjusted life expectancy of just 56 years. Preventative healthcare is extremely ineffective in India: only 66% of children are immunised against infectious diseases and 71% are immunised against measles, placing India in the bottom 10 countries on both variables.

Healthcare expenditure is 116 USD (PPP) per capita, placing India 92nd, globally, and there is insufficient provision of hospital beds, placing India 94th on this variable. Barely three in 10 citizens have access to adequate sanitation facilities, and according to a 2010 survey, only 63% of people reported satisfaction with the quality of water where they live.

Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

India has very high incidences of respiratory diseases and tuberculosis; placing India 110th and 85th, respectively, on these variables. Subjective assessments of public health reveal that Indians do not feel healthy. Only 80% are content with their personal health, and an above average 26% report debilitating health problems. Around the global average under a third of people reported feeling worried for a significant part of the day prior to the 2010 survey, while just 68% felt well-rested. India places in the bottom 10 with respect to its physical environment, as less than half the population expressed satisfaction with the beauty of their surroundings.

Safety & Security - Ranked 97th
Indians face threats arising from displacement, political violence, and crime

India faces political and demographic problems, which threaten its national security. The level of displacement in India is above average, resulting in a sizeable number of refugees and internally displaced persons, and there are many group grievances arising from current and historic injustices. Acts of state-sponsored political violence are common, and instances of civil and ethnic strife resulting casualties were reported in 2010. Relatively few people report feeling safe when expressing their political opinions, placing India 68th on this variable.

India places 89th with respect to a high level of demographic instability from border disputes, ownership or occupancy of land, access to transportation outlets, control of religious or historical sites, or proximity to environmental hazards.

Rounded Rectangle: Index Camparisons Rank/Number of Countries Legatum Prosperity Index 91st /110 Average Life Satisfaction Ranking 10th /110 Per Capita GDP Ranking 85th/110 WEF Global Competitiveness Index 51st /139 UN Human Development Index 119th /169 Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index 124th/179 TI Corruption Perceptions Index 87th /178 Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index 135th/153

The country also suffers from significant emigration of professionals, intellectuals, political dissidents, and members of the middle class. Measures of personal safety are mixed. According to a 2010 survey, an above average 10% of people had been assaulted in the previous year, while 12% had been victims of theft, placing India 81st and 44th, respectively, on these variables. Additionally, only 6 out of 10 of people feel safe walking alone at night, ranking the country 59th, on this variable.

Personal Freedom - Ranked 73rd
In India, individual freedoms are limited and tolerance of immigrants remains low

Indians are somewhat restricted in their civil liberties, and the country places 52nd with regard to freedoms of expression, belief, association, and personal autonomy.

According to a 2010 survey, 78% of people are satisfied with their freedom to choose what they do with their lives, placing India 44th on this variable.

Only 37% of people surveyed believe that their city is a good place for immigrants to live, placing India 103rd on this variable.

A higher 61% believed that ethnic and racial minorities are welcomed in their area, placing India 74th on this variable.

Social Capital - Ranked 104th
Family and religion are important factors, which tie together the Indian society

According to a 2010 survey, 21% of Indians believe they can trust others, placing India 59th on this variable. India also ranks towards the middle of the Index with respect to percentage of people who had donated to charity in the previous month, and proportion of people who had formally volunteered their time over the same period, at 28% and 18% respectively. However, only 40% of people had helped a stranger in the previous month, which ranks 76th, and may indicate relatively poor community relations.

Social networks are reasonably well-developed. India has the third highest rate of marriage in the world, at 70% , indicating the potential for strong access to familial networks.

Access to religious networks may also be strong, with two-thirds of respondents to a 2010 survey having attended a place of worship in the preceding seven days. Despite these networks, only 60% of people claim they can rely on family or friends in times of need, placing the country just 106th on this variable.

The terms 'international', 'global', or 'world' are used to reference the 110 Prosperity Index countries, which represent approximately 93% of the world’s population and - 97% of global GDP.